The Science & Story of Chlorine Dioxide

Interactive Reference Guidebook

This reference guide is copyrighted; however, it may be freely copied and distributed with the condition that it is free of charge. Any copies must be unedited from the original version.


All rights reserved.


The Universal Antidote Interactive Reference Guidebook

Copyright © 2021 by Curious Human Productions. All Rights Reserved.



Disclaimer: The information provided in this book is designed to provide helpful information on the subjects discussed. This book is not meant to be used, nor should it be used, to diagnose or treat any medical condition. For diagnosis or treatment of any medical problem, consult your own physician. The publisher and author are not responsible for any specific health or allergy needs that may require medical supervision and are not liable for any damages or negative consequences from any treatment, action, application or preparation, to any person reading or following the information in this book.

References are provided for informational purposes only and do not constitute endorsement of any websites or other sources. Readers should be aware that the website links in this book may change.


Note: Thank you to the many contributors to both the documentary and the reference guide. Thanks to Charlotte, Daniel, Brian, Kerri, Bob, Mark, Steve, Maggie, and so many more. Thanks to my wife who has put up with me and my CD/MMS talk for 2+ years. Thank you to all of the people that were brave enough to share their stories.


Table of Contents

*This reference guide is interactive. You can click on links to open documents and literature references on the web. If you can’t find a reference, or if you have a question, you can email me at the following email address:

(click on any of the sections to be taken there directly)



Section 1: The Universal Antidote Script with Citation References Section 2: Full List of References from My Research

Safety Studies

Efficacy Studies

Antiviral Research

Antibacterial Research

Direct Human Research

Pesticide/Herbicide/Pollutant Cleanup Research

Antifungal Research

fn.tipAarasitic Research

Mercury Neutralization Research

Miscellaneous Research isteTl rCompany Research

j.   Papers With Other CD Literature References

Section 3: Chlorine Dioxide Patents

Section 4: Negative Reports in the Scientific Literature Section 5: Social Networks, Books, and more



The first part of this interactive reference guide is designed to give you quick access to all of the information presented in the movie documentary, The Universal Antidote. It includes the script of the documentary and references provided throughout the script as it progresses. This will allow an investigator to quickly look up all of the references as the documentary progresses.


The second portion of this interactive reference guide provides the reader with links and citations to all of the research that I have uncovered during my two year investigation.

These research article links and papers are by no means thorough, and as I continue my research, this work may be added to.


Section 1: The Universal Antidote Script with Citation References


Note: Script test is black and citation reference text is blue.


What if I told you that people have been needlessly suffering and dying from diseases like cancer, aids, Lyme disease and a virtually endless list of viral and bacterial infections?


What if I told you that an inexpensive and effective chemical remedy exists, and that remedy has been silenced, falsely discredited and hidden from the world?


What if I told you that there was undeniable evidence, as well as countless testimonies of its safe use and powerful effectiveness.


Would you be willing to learn the truth?


The news media calls it a poisonous bleach and the Food and Drug Administration says that it's a dangerous toxic chemical and harmful to humans.


Yet not that long ago, NASA researchers proclaimed it to be a universal antidote and more recently thousands of physicians in Central and South America have used it with 100% effectiveness against COVID-19.


The link below is the 1987 NASA article that labeled a patented chlorine dioxide product called Alcide, a universal antidote. The title of the article was “A Universal Antidote” (pg. 118-121) (Pg. 118-121)


This earlier NASA article from 1983 was titled “A Multipurpose Compound” (Pg. 86-87)



In 2015, I stumbled upon information about an alleged "miracle supplement" called mms or

Miracle Mineral Solution.


I’m a critical care nurse, and have worked in the healthcare field for 25 years. I’ve seen a lot of snake oil salesmen in my time, and I'm always skeptical when I hear of any medicine that is called a miracle and it has been my strongly held belief that if something is too good to be true it usually is. I was promptly scared away from MMS after watching a documentary on YouTube called "The Church of Bleach."


Complete chlorine dioxide propaganda playlist: e=share


That documentary, along with several others, was designed to scare people away from this substance and make anyone who would consider using it seem to be a member of a cult group at best or end up with death by poisoning at worst.


It was not until 3 years later, in early 2018, that my eyes would be opened to the truth of what this miracle mineral supplement was all about. From this point forward I’ll refer to MMS as chlorine dioxide its proper chemical name.


I would like to start by telling you how I was first introduced to MMS. A friend came to visit in early 2016. She told me about someone she knew who had spent over a decade in Africa doing missionary work and helping people with all kinds of health problems. She gave me his number and said I should give him a call and talk to him about his experiences.


I gave Dave the missionary a call. I've changed his name in order to protect his missionary work in Africa.


So I spent about 20 minutes on the phone with Dave. That was in 2016. I really didn't get much out of the conversation at the time because I didn't know much about the topics and alternative remedies that he was talking about.


He told me about his use of what he called MMS, its amazing effectiveness, and how he was helping people in some of the poorest regions of Africa.


About a year and a half later in 2018, I ran across a video titled Quantum Leap. That video was a documentary that included interviews with people who had been cured of both minor and serious diseases using MMS.


After spending 25 years in the health care field as a nurse, I was very skeptical and I found it incredibly difficult to believe that so many people had been cured by a single substance.

However, as I watched, my mind raced back to the conversation with Dave the missionary and the pieces began to fall together.


I called my friend back and got Dave's phone number again. It just so happened that he was back in the US on leave from his missionary work in Africa, and I was able to contact him. Dave and I


again talked on the phone for about 30 minutes. The stories of cured diseases were very similar to the stories that were related in the Quantum Leap video.


---(link to full video documentary with Dave the missionary)---


That conversation set me on a two-year journey to discover the truth of chlorine dioxide for myself.


Over the next two years I set out to prove to myself once and for all if this substance was truly a miracle or truly the poison that the mainstream media was making it out to be.


I read hundreds of scientific papers, research articles, and patent applications. I listened to well over 100 personal video testimonies, and I watched every anti-chlorine dioxide video that I could get my hands on. I really wanted to know if there were legitimate and well founded arguments against the use of chlorine dioxide.


I took notes, screen captured comments, downloaded video testimonies, and joined forums so that I could personally communicate with those using chlorine dioxide.


In this video, I want to share my two year journey of discovery with you so that you can save yourself some time and effort. I'm not saying that you shouldn't do your own research, but I am saying that I have done a significant amount of unbiased research, and I was willing to go either way with regard to accepting the claims of chlorine dioxide.


I wasn't committed to proving the substance true, but as a healthcare provider, I have always been committed to finding things that help people get well and then educating people about those things.


As I jumped right into my search for the truth, I had questions that I needed answered. My questions about chlorine dioxide and their answers are summed up in this documentary which will be presented in 4 parts. In Part one we'll learn what chlorine dioxide is and take a brief walk through the history of its use in the United States.


Part 2 addresses the safety of chlorine dioxide for human use.


In Part 3 you'll find out just how effective chlorine dioxide is and explore its wide range of uses.


And Part 4 is comprised of personal testimonies from people who have experienced healing from the use of chlorine dioxide.


A full review of the data collected during this journey of discovery can be found in the PDF provided in the description of this video if you're watching the original on my YouTube channel


or on my back up channel. Both channels are titled "curious human productions". If you copy and re-upload this video, I would ask that you place a link to the PDF reference document in the description of your re-uploaded video.


Curious Human Productions YT Channel:

Curious Human Productions Channel:

Curious Human Productions Bit Chute Channel:

So what is chlorine dioxide and how is it used?


First let me say that chlorine dioxide has had a rich and well-spoken of history in the US and abroad long before the media and powers that be came against it.


So what made the change?


Let me see if I can connect the dots through a quick review of its history here in the United States.


Since its discovery in 1814 by Sir Humphrey Davy, the use of chlorine dioxide has slowly grown, and it is now used in a wide range of industries. Its use has significantly increased since the late 1970s.


Chlorine dioxide is registered as a sterilizer and biocide and is used to sterilize medical facilities and laboratories including BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs which handle the world's most deadly pathogens.


Chlorine dioxide is a biocide. This means it kills all bacteria, viruses, and fungus on contact through a process of oxidization.


It has many applications from the food and beverage industry where it is used as an antimicrobial agent for washing foods, cleaning produce, and disinfecting liquids. It's used in the pharmaceutical and medical device industry for contamination control and sterility. Hospitals, schools, and daycares use it as a sterilizing disinfectant to prevent dangerous pathogens like MRSA, corona virus, and mold spores.


Food safety:




Medical devices:




Chlorine dioxide is used for municipal water purification and has become the gold standard because it is safe for human consumption, non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic.


Chlorine dioxide is a gas and must be produced at the time of use. The most common and simple method for producing chlorine dioxide gas is a process of mixing sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and an acid activator. When these two substances are mixed, chlorine dioxide gas forms.


The gas is a very simple and tiny molecule and contains one chlorine atom (Cl) and two oxygen atoms (O2).


It is extremely soluble in water and does not create chemical bonds. This means that the gas can be dissolved entirely in water. Because of this property it can be used to safely and effectively purify water while completely deactivating viruses, bacteria, fungi, and some types of small parasites. It even neutralizes many toxins, pesticides, herbicides, and pharmaceuticals that contaminate drinking water. As an added bonus, It can do all of that without producing any harmful organic compounds as occurs with nearly all other disinfectants.


Industries that rely on chlorine dioxide for disinfectant properties include agriculture, health care, food, beverage, public water works, and air quality just to name a few.


Up until the 1970s, chlorine dioxide was primarily used on a small scale for water disinfection but failed to gain early and widespread use because of the inexpensive but more toxic chlorine bleach which had been used for drinking water disinfection since the 1920s.


Howard Alliger an inventor, scientist, and business man first discovered the beneficial effects of chlorine dioxide for not only human and animal health but for almost anything that involves killing bacteria, viruses, and fungi. He made his discovery, while searching for a non-corrosive sterilizer that could be used with a product that he had helped develop and sell called the sonicator.


This work led him to experiment with chlorine dioxide as a sterilizer with part of his system. He discovered a formulation for a simple method of generating chlorine dioxide using sodium chlorite and an acid activator. The method worked perfectly with his sonicator. He patented the chemical process and named it Alcide. He then discovered that the chemical worked just as well for sterilization without the ultrasonic device. He took his patented process and chemical formulation for producing chlorine dioxide and formed a company around it using the same name, Alcide Corporation.


This article below is the article in which NASA labeled a patented chlorine dioxide product called Alcide, A Universal Antidote. You will find the article on pg. 118-121. (Pg. 118-121)


This is an earlier NASA article that (Pg. 86-87)

(This is a PDF file and may give you a warning when you open. It is safe to open the pdf file)


Alcide Corporation went on to produce multiple patents and products that utilized the antimicrobial and healing effects of chlorine dioxide. Alcide Corporation had patents for treating wound disinfection, donated human blood and blood component disinfection, an oral rinse for prevention and treatment of infection, formulations for anti-inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, fungal infections, eczema, dandruff, acne, genital herpes, and leg ulcers. Other products included topical applications for preventing and treating bacterial infections including udder mastitis, in mammals.


Also under development were systemic anti-inflammatory formulations and methods for reducing inflammation in tissues such as the bowel, muscle, bone, tendon and joints.


Methods also were developed and patented for preventing and treating microbial infections in the lower genital tract of mammals. These included treatment of vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and endometritis which involved an intra-vaginal and/or intra-uterine infusion.


Apart from the applications for human and animal use Alcide Corporation also received multiple patents that utilized chlorine dioxide for the treatment and disinfection of food and beverages, the disinfection of surfaces for Industrial, health care, agricultural, and more. liger


Wound disinfection and repair

Composition and procedure for disinfecting blood and blood components

Anti-inflammatory formulations for inflammatory diseases



Disinfecting oral hygiene compositions and process for using the same

Method and composition for prevention and treatment of female lower genital tract microbial infections


Full List Patents:


Alcide Corporation went public in 1983, and for reasons unknown, Howard soon sold his share of the company and parted ways. When Howard left the company, he had to sign a no compete agreement with Alcide Corporation which prevented him from developing chlorine dioxide products.


---per interview with Valerie Alliger-Bogard and and-business-magazines/misonix-inc---


Remarkably, in 1994 at the age of 66, he started the company ARCO research and began his work with chlorine dioxide again after the no compete agreement had expired. In 2004 ARCO research became Frontier Pharmaceutical and has continued to expand and develop chlorine dioxide products for human use, and before his death at 92 years of age, Mr. Alliger even patented a method for treating cancer with chlorine dioxide injections.


Patent for treating cancer


Direct discussion with Valerie Alliger


Also, in 2004 the multibillion dollar company Ecolab acquired Alcide Corporation. The CEO of echo lab at the time stated "We believe the transaction of Alcide is attractively priced for Alcide shareholders, and will allow Alcide to accelerate growth for its products and improve opportunities for its employees." Alcide/default.aspx


After Ecolab purchased Alcide, research and development for human applications of chlorine dioxide seems to have stopped, and Alcide products were rebranded with a strong focus on industrial and agricultural use.


Now we need to step back in time a bit to 1996. It was at this point where the course of chlorine dioxide took a very interesting turn with the coincidental discovery of a common yet eccentric gold miner by the name of Jim Humble.


In the summer of 1996, Jim Humble was hired to lead a mining expedition through the jungles of South America. During the expedition two of the men on his crew were bitten by mosquitoes and became very ill with what they thought was malaria. They had no anti-malarial medication and were two days away from any help. Jim had brought bottles of stabilized oxygen. Stabilized oxygen is a liquid solution of sodium chlorite that is used to purify water.


---verification of Jim Humbles gold mining background--- Gold Mining:

Other Books and Articles written by Jim Humble:


CLS manual: Non-cyanide leaching (1985)


The truth in modern gold mining: (Gold mining opportunities for the investor) 1994


Popular Mining; March/April 1988 (Issue 25)


A fire assay home study course (1989)


Fire Assay Home Study Course By Jim V. Humble, and updated in 2006


Modern Mercury Amalgamation Manual


--------Verification of Jim Humbles gold mining background.---


Since sodium chlorite is used to purify water, Jim thought that it might help rid them of the pathogen that was causing their illness. He gave his companions some of the stabilized oxygen and within hours, the men were back on their feet, feeling completely well. This raised some questions in Jim’s mind. Did this water purifier really kill the malaria?


The malaria parasite infects and kills over a million people each year. This was the beginning of Jim’s search to understand what had happened. He began successfully experimenting with his mixture of stabilized oxygen on himself and the local natives who had contracted malaria.


Jim later discovered for himself that when the sodium chlorite solution comes into contact with stomach acid or any acid, it produces a substance called chlorine dioxide. Jim would later discover that chlorine dioxide cured much more than malaria.


Over the next decade, Jim spent a significant amount of time experimenting on himself using chlorine dioxide, and ultimately helped people in some of the poorest regions of the world including South America, Mexico, and several African countries. He was using chlorine dioxide to cure malaria, typhoid fever, dengue fever, HIV and other serious diseases.


In 2006 Jim published his first book titled, "The miracle mineral supplement of the 21st- century." It was in this book that Mr. Humble recounted the story of his initial discovery, subsequent self-experimentation, and adventures discovering the healing benefits of chlorine dioxide.


He also gave detailed instructions for anyone to inexpensively prepare this substance for themselves.


PDF version of book: ury.3rd.edition.part.1.and.part.2.pdf VQgAACAAJ&source=kp_book_description


Over the next few years, chlorine dioxide or what came to be known as MMS, became an internet sensation and many people began to share how they were being helped by this substance.


Internet chat groups formed and other early social networks began to develop and spread the news of its benefits. From 2006 to 2010, the human use and popularity of chlorine dioxide under the name MMS continued to grow, and it was in 2010 that a government and media campaign began in order to deter people from using chlorine dioxide. The media and FDA reported that chlorine dioxide was a poisonous bleach and its consumption could result in injury or death.


From 2010 up until the current year of 2020, the main stream media and the FDA have continued their relentless attack on the human use of chlorine dioxide and anyone who would promote its use in the treatment of human disease.


Now let's think about this critically for a moment. From the mid-1970s to 2010 a wide range of industries, have been using and developing chlorine dioxide products without any media outcry and without any FDA warnings about this being a toxic poisonous bleach. Then when it's discovered that anyone can safely make and use chlorine dioxide to cure a broad range of human diseases without a doctor, the FDA and the mainstream media begin a fear campaign against chlorine dioxide to scare humanity away from this simple yet amazing substance.


Are you beginning to see the picture?


They can't ban the substance because it's so widely used in so many industries. Chlorine dioxide has been available for human and animal use since the 1970s but it was when a common old gold miner by the name of Jim humble discovered how easy it was to make and treat yourself with chlorine dioxide that the establishment comes out with false information and misleading scare tactics to keep people from personally experiencing the power of chlorine dioxide for themselves.


There's so much more that I would like to add with regard to the historical review but we'll have to save that for another video.


So now that we've summed up a brief review of the history let's move on to our first question... Is chlorine dioxide safe for human use?


Let's stop here for a minute and talk about bleach. It is true that chlorine dioxide is used in the paper industry as a bleaching agent and this is where much of the controversy arises.


The anti-chlorine dioxide crowd has one argument and one argument only against chlorine dioxide.


This argument is simply propaganda. Here's why.


As a nurse, I regularly give my patients many dangerous substances like Coumadin, a blood thinner which is used as rat poison, chemotherapy, some of which are used as chemical weapons, and salt water for hydration which is a poison in high concentrations.


All of these substances can be beneficial for humans but can also be highly toxic and even cause death when given in large amounts or inappropriately. The toxicity has everything to do with the dose amount and it has nothing to do with the label placed on the substance.


The same is true for chlorine dioxide. For chlorine dioxide to be used as a bleaching agent, the solution concentration will be on average 5% which equals 50,000 ppm.


Dosing used for human health ranges from 000003% to .02% solution." When chlorine dioxide is used appropriately in the minuscule quantities required to eliminate pathogen's and benefit human health, it's totally safe.


So the bleach propaganda argument which initially scared me away from chlorine dioxide is completely invalid with reference to how chlorine dioxide is used for internal and external human use.


Here's a quote from Scotmas group, experts in the field of chlorine dioxide disinfection:


"While chlorine dioxide has “chlorine” in its name, its chemistry is radically different from that of chlorine.


As we all learned in high school chemistry, we can mix two compounds and create a third that bears little resemblance to its parents. For instance, by mixing two parts of hydrogen gas with one of oxygen - liquid water is the formed. We should not be misled by the fact that chlorine and chlorine dioxide share a word in common. The chemistries of the two compounds are completely different."


So now let's dig into safety. Is chlorine dioxide safe?


The answer to this question is yes and no. Yes, it is safe if it is used appropriately, and no it is not safe if it is used inappropriately. This is true for any chemical, medicine, or substance that is applied to the human body.


Because of chlorine dioxide's safe track record, It is used widely as a water purifier and is being used as a safe decontaminant in many industries including the food and beverage, medical, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and sanitation. Any place where you need to kill all of the bacteria, fungus, and viruses’ chlorine dioxide is becoming known as the safest and most effective choice available.


Chlorine dioxide was used to safely sterilize the senate offices after an anthrax attack in Washington DC in 2001 and it has been used to safely clean up Ebola virus hot zones. buildings/ ola/


When used appropriately, chlorine dioxide is safe and is one of the few chemicals that does not harm the environment.


Precautions and discretion should be used as would be appropriate with any chemical, medication, herb, or substance used for medicinal purposes.


There are a number of different ways that the users of Chlorine dioxide introduce this substance onto and into their bodies. The primary methods of use are topical and oral consumption.


For the purposes of this discussion about safety, I'm going to cover the methods that are commonly tested in the scientific research literature which include oral consumption, inhalation, and ophthalmic.


One of the main reasons why chlorine dioxide is replacing chlorine bleach in many water treatment facilities is because its byproducts do not react with organic compounds in the same way as chlorine bleach. The byproducts of chlorine dioxide are safe and not harmful for human consumption. Safety studies performed since the 1970s have shown that chlorine dioxide when used appropriately is safe for human consumption. More recent animal studies have also helped to identify safe levels of chlorine dioxide for oral and inhalation use.


Let's look at a few of those studies. In 2017, a safety study was performed using mice. Part of this study was performed in order to determine the safety and efficacy of chlorine dioxide when inhaled and taken orally. The conclusion for the inhaled chlorine dioxide was that compared to the control group "inhalation of 10 and 20 ppm of chlorine dioxide (for a full straight 24 hour period) did not cause irritation in the mice." and there was no significant difference between the control and the test group.


In the same study, the conclusion for the oral dosing of chlorine dioxide was "In the subchronic oral toxicity test, 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm chlorine dioxide was prepared to feed the mice.

Clinical observations of the mice showed no abnormality and no mortality after 90 days for the control and test groups................ administration of up to 40 ppm chlorine dioxide to mice for 90 days is

nontoxic.. "


...And again in the same study, 50 ppm showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ophthalmic eye irritation test. ffn_sectitle


In another animal study 100 mg/l, which is 100 ppm chlorine dioxide was added to every liter of drinking water for 30 days and toxicity on blood components was evaluated, they evaluated a wide range of blood parameters and they found no significant effects on any of these parameters.


Note: (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin


concentration, reticulocyte count, and osmotic fragility)


In another study, human volunteers drank chlorine dioxide in solution up to 24 ppm and showed no adverse effects.


In another study from 1979, Honeybees, which are usually very susceptible to any toxicity, were fed high doses of 10 to 100 ppm chlorine dioxide in their water supply and showed no ill effects. And not only that, when the concentration was kept between 10-100 ppm this significantly increased the longevity of the bees.


Lockett, J., Oxodene: Longevity of Honey Bees, Journal of Econ. Entomology, vol. 65,No. 1, Feb. 1972


In another study, rats were exposed continuously to inhaled chlorine dioxide gas at 0.05 ppm or

0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week for 6 months. The study concluded that gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic.


These rats breathed low concentrations for six months continuously and had no adverse side effects.



Full document: (may take a couple of moments to open) month_low_level_chlorine_dioxide_gas_inhalation_toxicity_study_with_two- week_recovery_period_in_rats/links/540eb9750cf2f2b29a3a9d93/Six-month-low-level-chlorine- dioxide-gas-inhalation-toxicity-study-with-two-week-recovery-period-in- rats.pdf?origin=publication_detail


In another study performed in Japan, school children had a significantly reduced incidence of absenteeism during a period when low concentrations of chlorine dioxide was disbursed throughout the classroom. These children were being exposed to safe levels of chlorine dioxide and received the benefit of fewer sick days. mely_low_concentration_on_absenteeism_of_schoolchildren


Full PDF: (may take a couple of moments to open) oxide_gas_of_extremely_low_concentration_on_absenteeism_of_schoolchildren/links/548968ba 0cf268d28f09625a/Effect-of-chlorine-dioxide-gas-of-extremely-low-concentration-on- absenteeism-of-schoolchildren.pdf?origin=publication_detail


According to the centers for disease control, "Chlorine dioxide is not mutagenic or carcinogenic in humans."


According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency in a study carried out in 1981, 198 people were exposed to 5 ppm chlorine dioxide for three months and the EPA researchers failed to identify any significant exposure-related effects when compared to the control group of 118 people.


A study was carried out on chlorine dioxide and it's metabolites in 1982 and this was the conclusion:


"Within the limits of the study, the relative safety of oral ingestion of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites, chlorite and chlorate, was demonstrated by the absence of detrimental physiological response." 0059.pdf?fbclid=IwAR0mat3plg8xlh-oiBCK95_NM25A3xFVIU2cyACCZSApyM- kf1ZksAdmLoM


On Page 1 of the EPA completed review of chlorine dioxide it states: "At this time, products containing chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite are intended for agricultural, commercial, industrial, medical and residential use." On page 2 it states: "Chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite do not appear to produce a toxic metabolite produced by other substances." Aug-06.pdf


To exemplify just how safe chlorine dioxide is, the pharmaceutical company, frontier pharmaceuticals, has produced a variety of FDA approved safe products containing chlorine dioxide that include oral rinse and skin care products, and the founder of the company, Howard Alliger, even has a patent for using chlorine dioxide to eliminate cancer. The patent states the following: "Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a strong oxidant, can safely be injected into a subject's body, including a tumor, although the compound has not yet been utilized as a cancer treatment in this manner.


It goes on to say, "ClO2 is highly penetrating, and generally considered nontoxic—as demonstrated by its application in deep wounds, 3rd degree burns, and use in oral and topical diseases."


Homepage Frontier Pharmaceuticals:


Citations are given for the research papers that validate this statement. These can be found in the pdf document listed in the description of this documentary.


There are dozens of research papers that extol the benefits and safety of properly applied chlorine dioxide for human wound management and microbial control. In 2014, the Journal of Advances in Skin and Wound Care published an article that stated," Chlorine dioxide appears to be a safe biologically acceptable antiseptic wound irrigate that does not appear to interfere with cosmetic outcomes."


And from the international dentistry journal published in 2004 it states, "the effectiveness of topical chlorine dioxide (0.8%) in the management of chronic atrophic candidiasis was demonstrated. ClO2 provided a safe and clinically effective option."


And just so you understand what a .8% solution is let me illustrate. 0.8% when converted to parts per million equals 8,000 ppm.


The typical oral dosing that people use when ingesting chlorine dioxide orally is less than 100 ppm and typically less than 50 ppm. So as an oral rinse chlorine dioxide was safe and clinically effective at a dose 80 times greater than what is used to receive the beneficial effects through oral ingestion.


Chlorine dioxide is even being used medically for the treatment of cancer in France. French physician Laurent Schwartz has been treating patients using a protocol that includes chlorine dioxide. The literature can be reviewed at metabolic-treatment.html


-----Below was removed from documentary but good information.-----


And not only is chlorine dioxide safe when used appropriately, Scientific research indicates that chlorine dioxide neutralizes many different environmental toxins including herbicides, pesticides, pharmaceutical residues and more.


Publication . Thesis . 1988. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide             2485::082608b5ddc2948692e 57ef0569f6259


Application of chemical oxidation processes for the removal of pharmaceuticals in biologically treated wastewater


Oxidation of pharmaceuticals by chlorine dioxide in biologically treated wastewater


Decontamination of Microorganisms and Pesticides from Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: A Comprehensive Review from Common Household Processes to Modern Techniques


Examination of degradation and ecotoxicology of pethoxamid and metazachlor after chlorine dioxide treatment


Ben, W., Shi, Y., Li, W., Zhang, Y., & Qiang, Z. (2017). Oxidation of sulfonamide antibiotics by chlorine dioxide in water: kinetics and reaction pathways. Chemical Engineering Journal, 327, 743–750.


Chen, Q., Wang, Y., Chen, F., Zhang, Y., & Liao, X. (2014). Chlorine dioxide treatment for the removal of pesticide residues on fresh lettuce and in aqueous solution. Food Control, 40, 106– 112.


----Above was removed from the documentary to decrease length but good information----


When typical users ingest chlorine dioxide by mouth, they are going to be consuming mixtures that range from about 10 ppm to 100 ppm. So the range of dosing is within or just slightly above the doses that showed no abnormality and no mortality after 90 days of chronic daily use in the animal studies previously mentioned.


Thousands of people, including myself, have experimentally consumed chlorine dioxide for months at a time within the 10-100 ppm dosage range. I'm not stating that long-term chronic daily use is recommended, but I'm stating that people have performed long-term chronic daily use experiments without harm. Like any good medicine, chlorine dioxide should be used appropriately to help restore and improve human health.


A full review of all of the documents mentioned in this safety section can be found through the link in the description of this documentary.


In summary, when used appropriately in the low doses required to neutralize pathogens Chlorine dioxide has been proven safe. When used inappropriately in high doses chlorine dioxide can be dangerous and it must be used with caution.


The third question that I needed answered as I began my research into chlorine dioxide was "Is chlorine dioxide effective for destroying pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungus and producing other beneficial oxidative effects. And to be more specific is it effective at doing this with direct human application both outside and inside the body?


Let's first look at the evidence for the overall effectiveness of chlorine dioxide's ability to kill viruses, bacteria, and fungus. And then we will take a look at the effectiveness with regard to human application.


One thing you have to keep in mind with regard to effectiveness studies is that to my knowledge, in the United States, there have been no started or completed human trials authorized by the existing medical establishment for the internal use of chlorine dioxide with any virus, bacteria, or fungus and there have been hundreds if not thousands of research projects into its external and disinfectant use.


Fortunately, there have been a few "unofficial" remarkable human studies completed and we live in the digital age where it is almost impossible to completely eliminate information.


Unfortunately, instead of embracing the incredible results and jumping into action with more studies, the results were quickly discredited and buried after the powers that be classified them as "never happening" or "unauthorized".


So let’s get started looking into the in vitro research.


To start here's a quote from the Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014


"Chlorine dioxide is 3 to 4 times as powerful as sodium hypochlorite as a sanitizing agent and is generally effective against all bacteria and viruses."


From the Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual (fifth edition), 2017:


"Chlorine dioxide is capable of inactivating most water-borne pathogens, including Cryptosporidium, at practical doses and contact times. It is at least as effective a bactericide as chlorine and in many cases superior. It is far superior as a virucide."


From the International Travel Health Guide (2006-2007), 13th Edition:


"Chlorine dioxide is an extremely effective disinfectant, which rapidly kills bacteria, viruses, and Giardia, and is also effective against Cryptosporidium. ClO2 also improves taste and odor, destroys sulfides, cyanides, and phenols, controls algae, and neutralizes iron and manganese ions. It is an effective biocide at concentrations as low as 0.1 ppm (parts per million) and over a wide pH range. It is ten times more soluble in water than chlorine, even in cold water. Unlike iodine, chlorine dioxide has no adverse effects on thyroid function. Chlorine dioxide is widely used by municipal water treatment facilities.


The term “chlorine dioxide” is misleading because chlorine is not the active element. Chlorine dioxide is an oxidizing, not a chlorinating agent. ClO2 penetrates the cell wall and reacts with amino acids in the cytoplasm within the cell, killing the microorganism. The by-product of this reaction is chlorite, which is harmless to humans."


In the same study mentioned earlier that looked at oral, inhaled, and ophthalmic safety limits the researchers found that "antimicrobial activity in vitro was more than 98.2% reduced when concentrations of chlorine dioxide were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively;" it stated "excellent antimicrobial activity was observed for both bacteria and fungi." In the study, antiviral inhibition was examined for H1N1, influenza B, and enteroviris 71, and there was a greater than 50% inhibitory effect with a 2 minute exposure to 100 ppm of chlorine dioxide. ffn_sectitle


It's important to note that this safety and effectiveness study was specifically being carried out because a chlorine dioxide solution can be and is directly applied to food and human hygiene products and for preventative health measures. (See screenshot below). In other words, they know it works extremely well on the outside, and they wanted to make sure that it is safe for internal use because it's so effective against all pathogens.




In a 2010 study, CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating ≥ 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of sodium hypochlorite which is standard bleach.


In a 2008 study of the Influenza A virus Infection, a randomized controlled trial was performed with mice and yielded the following amazing results.


10 mice were exposed to aerosolized influenza A and aerosolized chlorine dioxide at (0.03 ppm) simultaneously for 15 minutes. A control group of 10 mice were exposed to only the aerosolized influenza A for 15 minutes.


Sixteen days after exposure, none of the mice exposed to the chlorine dioxide influenza A group had died, but 7 out of 10 mice in the influenza only control group died. That is a 70% fatality for the mice that did not receive aerosolized chlorine dioxide. ta.html#ancher1


Did you catch that? Extremely low doses of chlorine dioxide protected 100% of those mice from influenza.


Chlorine dioxide out performs other disinfectants and is safer than any other.


In this study, eleven disinfectants were put to the test against some of the most common and harmful bacteria. Chlorine dioxide had the highest biocidal activity out of all eleven.


Chlorine dioxide inactivates HIV in vitro.


In a 1993 study, Chlorine dioxide inactivated HIV-1 in the presence of blood and in the presence of medical supplies.


Chlorine dioxide is effective at inactivating and destroying human papilloma virus (HPV).

Five of the most common bacterial pathogens have been tested against chlorine dioxide and here are some of the results


5 ppm of chlorine dioxide in water decreased E. coli. by 99.999% in 60 seconds.

ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII a multi-drug resistant bacteria which can cause pneumonia and meningitis


was killed by chlorine dioxide at 100 ppm in 60 seconds.

The bacteria which causes typhoid fever was killed off by a 10 minute exposure to 5 ppm chlorine dioxide gas.


PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA which is a drug resistant bacteria that causes pneumonia was completely killed by exposure to 10 ppm of chlorine dioxide for 60 seconds.


Chlorine dioxide is a certified biocide and here is a running list of microorganisms which includes bacteria, viruses, and fungi that it is known to inactivate.


There are many more studies on the efficient destroying power of chlorine dioxide and those studies can be found through a link in the description to a PDF handbook for chlorine dioxide references.


The incredible power and potency of chlorine dioxide to destroy pathogens that cause human suffering and misery cannot be overstated.


Now let's take a look at the available research for chlorine dioxide for direct external and internal human application along with some interesting animal studies.


In a Japanese study that looked at the continuous use of extremely low concentrations of chlorine dioxide. School children were exposed to 0.01-0.03 ppm in the air continuously, and there was a significant decline in student absenteeism during the 38 day trial period, and strongly suggests the usefulness of extremely low-concentration ClO2 gas to prevent respiratory viral diseases.


(may take a couple of moments to open the document below) oxide_gas_of_extremely_low_concentration_on_absenteeism_of_schoolchildren/links/548968ba 0cf268d28f09625a/Effect-of-chlorine-dioxide-gas-of-extremely-low-concentration-on- absenteeism-of-schoolchildren.pdf?origin=publication_detail


Chlorine dioxide is recognized as a biocompatible wound antiseptic irrigant.


This means that it can be used in human and animal wounds to help reduce infection and inflammation without causing any type of irritation or negative effects on routine healing. In fact, chlorine dioxide products have been shown to significantly improve wound healing time in animal studies. As a side note treatment of deep surgical wounds with chlorine dioxide has also


taken place in veterinary medicine and the results have been quite remarkable. Chlorine dioxide was shown to be completely safe and biocompatible and there was significant improvement in wound healing outcomes. on_Can_Be_Used_as.6.aspx#


Studies have been carried out by frontier pharmaceuticals with their chlorine dioxide products for the treatment of non-healing diabetic ulcers with striking results.


Multiple studies have been carried out on the use of chlorine dioxide for oral health, and several products have been developed by different companies which utilize it as a post-surgical oral rinse and general use oral rinse to treat periodontal disease, oral infections, canker sores, bad breath and more. Frontier pharmaceuticals, The company that was founded by Howard Alliger, offers a whole line of chlorine dioxide products for external and oral rinse use. They have products that cure toenail fungus, canker sores, oral infections, and chronic sinus infections. icans_caused_by_chlorine_dioxide_CLO2


Candida albicans is a big problem when it comes to fungal overgrowth caused by antibiotic overuse and denture use in the elderly. This overgrowth can cause significant human health problems. In a pilot study of oral Candida, chlorine dioxide provided a safe and clinically effective option in the management of chronic candidiasis. icans_caused_by_chlorine_dioxide_CLO2


A research study on dairy cows with a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide Teat Dip showed a reduced incidence of staph. aureus infection of the udder by over 90%


"In the preliminary clinical trial that took place in 1982,' a physician stated that Alcide (which is a patented form of chlorine dioxide) induced prompt remission of perioral herpes symptoms and rapid resolution of the lesions in 15 of 16 cases. These patients have had no recurrence in 6 months. Also five of the six patients with genital herpes had prompt remission and no recurrence."


Journal of applied toxicology, volume 2, issue 3 Article: Toxicity of Alcide

Mohamed S. Abdel‐Rahman Sammy E. Gerges Howard Alliger First published: June 1982

(A. R. Shalita, Internal report from Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Downstate Medical Center, State University of New York, May 1, 1979.)

In 2012, a study took place in Uganda. The International Red Cross, Uganda Red Cross, and a group called the Water Reference Center had members present that conducted the study and documented the results. In the study, 154 people tested positive for malaria and 154 were cured of malaria within 48 hours.


After the study was conducted by the local Red Cross, the International Red Cross authorities denied that the entire thing took place and refused to verify the results.


The study was documented on video by several people, and these videos made their way online. Unfortunately, the malaria study documentary has been banned multiple times from YouTube but can be found on alternative video platforms like Brighteon and BitChute and those links are provided in the PDF document that you can find in the description of this video.






Telegram link: ProofTheRedCrossCured154MalariaCasesWithMMS:0


In a more recent preliminary trial, 100 patients with serious illness from COVID-19 were cured within 48 hours with chlorine dioxide. These preliminary studies were carried out in the country of Ecuador by licensed physicians who were desperate to find a true solution for so many of the serious COVID-19 patients that were dying by the hundreds.


One brave doctor first cured himself using chlorine dioxide and then after several other doctors recovered with chlorine dioxide, it was offered as an alternative treatment with consent to severe cases.


All 100 patients that participated had significant improvement within 48 hours and achieved a complete recovery. This preliminary study was carried out with the assistance of biophysicist Andreas Kalcker who has been a longtime advocate of chlorine dioxide and speaks internationally on the subject.


One of my main purposes in showing you all of this research data is to help you see the contrast between what you see coming from the main stream news sources saying that chlorine dioxide is a toxic bleach and the reality that chlorine dioxide is a safe, powerful, and effective substance.


Here you have a substance that anyone can make or buy and when used appropriately it can bring health and healing where nothing else can. You can literally make enough of this to last a lifetime for less than $100, and it has been known to cure everything from the common cold to cancer.


Do you remember Howard Alliger, the guy that founded Alcide Corporation and frontier pharmaceuticals? He filed a patent in 2017 that utilizes chlorine dioxide to cure cancer. In the patent information, he provides experimental research that was performed with mice that showed a complete tumor regression within 48 hours of injection. That's right! It killed cancer tumors in less than 48 hours.


As I said previously, the internal human use studies are few and far between, but the same cannot be said for the anecdotal reports from all over the world.


From written testimony reports to video testimonies, there have been hundreds if not thousands of reports.


Many of these have been banned from media platforms like YouTube, Facebook, and Google search engine. The locations of these testimonies can be found in the PDF document found in the description of this video.


There has been a quietly growing grass roots movement of people using chlorine dioxide to self- treat disease and they have been using chlorine dioxide to cure a wide range of infectious diseases including antibiotic resistant bacterial infections, malaria, influenza, hepatitis, and more. Others have had some remarkable results relieving diseases such as arthritis, cancer, and other inflammatory diseases.


Time and my own personal limitations to perform interviews and compile interview data prevents me from chronicling the thousands of stories that I could compile. Here are some recent interviews and stories that I have compiled but this doesn't even scratch the surface as to the alleviation of human suffering that chlorine dioxide has brought to the world.


Earlier in this documentary, I mentioned Dave who is a missionary to Africa and has been helping people there with chlorine dioxide since 2007. In May of 2020, I was able to interview Dave over video chat. Here are some clips from that interview. The entire interview can also be found on my video channel and my BitChute backup channel.


(Clips from Dave's interview)


In this next interview you'll meet Steve. In his early 20s he had a chronic illness that resulted in two open-heart surgeries and multiple cases of pneumonia. In March 2020, he contracted what appeared to be a very severe case of COVID-19. He relates his initial discovery of chlorine dioxide and his rapid recovery from severe illness.


(Steve interview)


This is Anna. Anna struggled with debilitating Lyme disease for months before she discovered chlorine dioxide. She was bedridden and unable to walk and is on her way to full recovery.


(Anna Interview)


In this next video you'll meet Lindsay Wagner. Lindsay Wagner is an actress who you might recognize from the 1970s TV series called The Bionic Woman. She suffered from a severe skin disease that modern medicine could not fix. Her discovery of chlorine dioxide and her rapid healing are a true testimony to this chemical wonder.


(clip of Lindsay Wagner) her/1578875/


I could not make this documentary without mentioning the genesis2church of health and healing. They have been instrumental in helping thousands of people from all around the world to learn about and receive the beneficial effects of properly used chlorine dioxide.


In spite of an incessant disinformation campaign along with overwhelming persecution and harassment, they have continued to proclaim the truth about chlorine dioxide and they have also produced many instructional videos that help common people learn to make and use chlorine dioxide.


They have also produced hundreds of short video testimonials of people from all around the world. These video testimonials have provided a voice for each individual person to share about their healing experience and have served as a verifying record as to the effectiveness and healing power of chlorine dioxide.


However most if not all of them have been banned, deleted, and erased from all major media platforms. The PDF in the description of this video will provide you with link references where you can find all of these video testimonies as well as instructional videos for making and using chlorine dioxide for yourself. For the purposes of this documentary, I am going to provide just a few clips of some of these video testimonies to give you an idea of the wide range of disease processes that chlorine dioxide has helped.


I am aware that all of these reports are simply anecdotal testimonies of people's experiences. If there were just a couple of them, they would not be convincing. However, after you watch hundreds of videos and read hundreds of written testimonies there has to be some point at which anecdotal evidence leads to common sense deductions.


(clips of video testimonials from Genesis to church)


This is Maggie. Maggie's partner first introduced her to chlorine dioxide in 2019, and she thought that he was crazy. He had previously discovered chlorine dioxide when working to restore his own health after a battle with some serious health conditions.


In February 2020 Maggie and her partner both became extremely ill with respiratory symptoms. They both began taking chlorine dioxide and had a rapid recovery from their illnesses. This was the beginning of Maggie's healing journey. She is overcoming chronic sinus infections, chronic fatigue, herpes and more. A link to the full interview is in the pdf document.


(Maggie Stern interview)


A mass awakening occurred in June 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Because of its successful use by multiple doctors in South America, the country of Bolivia authorized the legal use of chlorine dioxide for the treatment of COVID-19.. Physicians were allowed to provide their patients with a voluntary option to receive chlorine dioxide as an oral treatment. The astounding testimonies and stories of people’s recovery from severe COVID-19 began to flow into Spanish media outlets and these testimonies started appearing on YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media platforms. As quickly as they appeared they began to be censored. Here is a collection of short video testimonies of both physicians and patients.


(video testimonies from Central America and South America)


Janika is from Estonia and first discovered chlorine dioxide or as she knew it MMS when her infant son became extremely ill and the doctors had given up and told her to prepare for the worst. This set her on a quest to find a cure for her son before it was too late.


(Janika Veski Interview)


In my 25 years of experience as a critical care nurse, I have never encountered a more amazing substance than chlorine dioxide. I hope that this documentary has helped explain why chlorine dioxide when used appropriately is safe, effective, and beneficial for human health and healing.


And I hope that this documentary will lead to more openness from the healthcare community so that proper human trials can occur and chlorine dioxide can see its full potential for the benefit of mankind.


Section 2: Full List of References from My Research on Chlorine Dioxide

During this journey of discovery, I compiled a large list of literature references. There is no way that I could have included all of the very interesting findings in a single video that anyone would take the time to watch so I have included the full list here with hyperlinks so that you can do your own research. This list is not complete and new information that I gather may be added occasionally.

These references are crudely divided into safety and efficacy study as indicated in the subheadings.



Safety Studies

Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution (2017) Full HTML:

Full PDF:


Effects of the acute rising dose administration of chlorine dioxide, chlorate and chlorite to normal healthy adult male volunteers







The effect of disinfection on viability and function of baboon red blood cells. Valeri CR1, Ragno G, MacGregor H, Pivacek LE

Author information


Photochemistry and Photobiology, 28 Feb 1997, 65(3):446-450

Pg. 10

"In the study using the non-activated sodium chlorite, which was performed as a control for the activated sodium chlorite studies, there was actually more damage to the red blood cells at the 15 mM concentration. The 24-hour posttransfusion survival value was 75% for the red blood cells in the control studies and 87% for the red blood cells treated with activated sodium chlorite."




Journal AWWAVolume 82, Issue 10 Research & Technology

Comparative Subchronic Toxicity Studies of Three Disinfectants


F. Bernard Daniel Lyman W. Condie Merrel Robinson Judy A. Stober First published: 01 October 1990







Increased longevity of honeybees with chlorine dioxide and sucrose

Lockett, J., Oxodene: Longevity of Honey Bees, Journal of Econ. Entomology, vol. 65,No. 1, Feb. 1972



Kinetics of Cl02 and effects of Cl02, Cl02-, and Cl03- in drinking water on blood glutathione and hemolysis in rat and chicken





The effects of chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite on erythrocytes of A/J and C57L/J mice G S Moore et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1980 Sep.

(unable to locate full source document)





Effects of alcide® gel on fetal development in rats and mice. II


Samy E. Gerges Mohamed S. Abdel‐Rahman Gloria A. Skowronski Stanley Von Hagen First published: April 1985







Pharmacodynamics of alcide, a new antimicrobial compound, in rat and rabbit J Scatina et al. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1984 Jun.




Toxicity of alcide


Journal of applied toxicology Volume 2, issue 3 (1982)

Mohamed S Abdel – Rahmen, Sammy E. Gerges, Howard Alliger







Improvement of the Air Quality in Student Health Centers With Chlorine Dioxide





Pharmacokinetics of Alcide, a Germicidal Compound in Rat J Scatina et al. J Appl Toxicol. 1983 Jun.





FDA 3 part per million guidance:





An unusual case of reversible acute kidney injury due to chlorine dioxide poisoning (drank 250 mL of concentrated chlorine dioxide)







Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats















World health organization document



Study of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites in man (1981)




Mechanistic aspects of ingested chlorine dioxide on thyroid function: impact of oxidants on iodide metabolism







Effects of chlorine dioxide on thyroid function in the African green monkey and the rat

R M Harrington et al. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1986.








Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis

"Deleterious effects of moderately high levels of these oxychlorines have been demonstrated experimentally on red blood cells, thyroid function, and development in laboratory animals. Adverse effects in controlled prospective studies in humans and in actual use situations in community water supplies have as yet failed to reveal clear evidence of adverse health effects."


"Again, very limited human experience has failed to reveal adverse health effects."





Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Water Disinfection on Hematologic and Serum Parameters of Renal Dialysis Patients





Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of the disinfection by-product, sodium chlorite, in female B6C3F1 mice: a drinking water study.





Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study G E Michael et al. Arch Environ Health. Jan-Feb 1981.







Viracidal Blood Bag System

Bayer inc. holds patent





Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of alternate drinking water disinfectants M S Abdel-Rahman et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Dec.

Full document: Up to 200 ppm determined safe in 90 day oral exposure in rats.










Effect of Exogenous Glutathione, Glutathione Reductase, Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorite on Osmotic Fragility of Rat Blood In Vitro




Toxicological Effects of Chlorite in the Mouse


G S Moore et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1982 Dec.

When exposed to a maximum level of 100 ppm chlorine dioxide in their drinking water, neither A/J or C57L/J mice exhibited any hematologic changes.



Subchronic Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide and Related Compounds in Drinking Water in the Nonhuman Primate J P Bercz et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1982








Oxidative Damage to the Erythrocyte Induced by Sodium Chlorite, in Vivo W P Heffernan et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. Jul-Aug 1979.




Haag, H.B., The Effects on Rats of Chronic Administration of Sodium Chlorite and Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water, Med. Col. Virginia, Dept. Phys, & Pharm.,

Report to Olin Corp., February 7, 1949


"Lack of toxicity on a long term, but low level basis is dramatically illustrated by two separate studies where rats,78 and honeybees,79 were fed ClO2 in high doses over a two year period. No ill effects were noted with up to 100 ppm added to water supply"







Health effects of drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products Richard J. Bull

Environmental Science & Technology 1982 16 (10), 554A-559A DOI: 10.1021/es00104a719





Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water


M. S. Abdel-Rahman, D. Couri, R. J. Bull First Published July 1, 1984

Full paper:







Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study G E Michael et al. Arch Environ Health. Jan-Feb 1981.




Controlled Clinical Evaluations of Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorite and Chlorate in Man by Judith R. Lubbers,* Sudha Chauan,* and Joseph R.Bianchine* 0059.pdf?fbclid=IwAR0mat3plg8xlh-oiBCK95_NM25A3xFVIU2cyACCZSApyM- kf1ZksAdmLoM


"However, by the absence of detrimental physiological responses within the limits of the study, the relative safety of oral ingestion of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites, chlorite and chlorate, was demonstrated."




Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood D Couri et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1979 Dec.





Influence of chlorine dioxide on cell death and cell cycle of human gingival fibroblasts.






Title: Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed


"Data generated by this study show that even when high concentrations of chlorine dioxide gas are used to treat alfalfa seed, undesirable chemical residues are not present in edible sprouts grown from those seeds. The study suggests that chemical residues are not a major obstacle for the development of chlorine dioxide gas as safe treatment for edible sprout production."





Title: Chloroxyanion residues in cantaloupe and tomatoes after chlorine dioxide gas sanitation


"Data from this study suggest that chlorine dioxide sanitation of edible vegetables and melons can be conducted without the formation of unwanted residues in edible fractions."







Chlorine dioxide water disinfection: a prospective epidemiology study G E Michael et al. Arch Environ Health. Jan-Feb 1981.


Chlorine Dioxide Efficacy Studies

Antiviral Research

Acidified sodium chlorite solution: A potential prophylaxis to mitigate impact of multiple exposures to COVID-19 in frontline health-care providers





Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability.







Evaluation of the Antiviral Activity of Chlorine Dioxide and Sodium Hypochlorite against Feline Calicivirus, Human Influenza Virus, Measles Virus, Canine Distemper Virus, Human Herpesvirus, Human Adenovirus, Canine Adenovirus and Canine Parvovirus





Mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine.







Chlorine Dioxide Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Bacterial Spore Indicators





Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection.







Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus by a Medical Waste Disposal Process Using Chlorine Dioxide





Antiviral Effect of Chlorine Dioxide against Influenza Virus and Its Application for Infection Control







The behavior of viruses on disinfection by chlorine dioxide and other disinfectants



Virucidal Activity of Fogged Chlorine Dioxide- and Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Disinfectants against Human Norovirus and Its Surrogate, Feline Calicivirus, on Hard-to-Reach Surfaces








Inactivation of Enteric Adenovirus and Feline Calicivirus by Chlorine Dioxide





Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas


Norio Ogata et al. Pharmacology. 2016;97(5-6):301-6. doi: 10.1159/000444503.

















Min Jin et al. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 May 7;47(9):4590-7.







Inactivation of simian rotavirus SA11 by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine. SA11_by_chlorine_chlorine_dioxide_and_monochloramine_





Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide





Investigation on Virucidal Activity of Chlorine Dioxide. Experimental Data on Feline Calicivirus, HAV and Coxsackie B5





Can chlorine dioxide prevent the spreading of coronavirus or other viral infections? Medical hypotheses







Inactivation Kinetics and Mechanism of a Human Norovirus Surrogate on Stainless Steel Coupons via Chlorine Dioxide Gas





Disinfection kinetics of murine norovirus using chlorine and chlorine dioxide Mi Young Lim et al. Water Res. 2010 May;44(10):3243-51.

doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.03.003.





The Ability of Two Chlorine Dioxide Chemistries to Inactivate Human Papillomavirus- Contaminated Endocavitary Ultrasound Probes and Nasendoscopes





Comparing the Efficacy of Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone in the Inactivation of Cryptosporidium Parvum in Water From Parana State, Southern Brazil

Juliana Tracz Pereira et al. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2008 Dec;151(2-3):464-73. doi: 10.1007/s12010-008-8214-3. Epub 2008 May 23.






" Chlorine dioxide at 5 ppm inactivated 90.56% of oocysts after 90 min of contact"




Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide.






Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by a medical waste disposal process using chlorine dioxide.








Chlorine dioxide inhibits the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by blocking viral attachment


Zhenbang Zhu et al. Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Jan.




Clinical use of Chlorine dioxide in the prevention of coronavirus spread through dental aerosols. coronavirus-spread-through-dental-aerosols/








Surrogate testing suggests that chlorine dioxide gas exposure would not inactivate Ebola virus contained in environmental blood contamination


John J Lowe et al. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2015 Sep.





Chlorine dioxide inactivation of enterovirus 71 in water and its impact on genomic targets Environ Sci Technol 2013 May 7;47(9):4590-7. doi: 10.1021/es305282g. Epub 2013 Apr 16.







Antibacterial Research

Journal of Water Process Engineering Volume 26, December 2018, Pages 46-54


Chlorine dioxide inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in water: The kinetics and mechanism (5 ppm resulted in a 5-log reduction 99.999% kill)





Chlorine Dioxide is a Better Disinfectant than Sodium Hypochlorite against Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii







The Inhibitory Effect of Alcide, an Antimicrobial Drug, on Protein Synthesis in Escherichia Coli J Scatina et al. J Appl Toxicol. 1985 Dec





[Bactericidal effects of chlorine dioxide by respiratory inhibition]. (Full article not available. Chinese)


"CONCLUSION: ClO2-induced damages to the mitochondria were positive correlated with the death rates, but respiratory inhibition was not the primary target site for cell killing."









Mode of bacterial inactivation by chlorine dioxide



Chlorine Dioxide is a Better Disinfectant than Sodium Hypochlorite against Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii

(100 ppm killed all strains in 60 seconds)







Inactivation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) on Various Environmental Surfaces by Mist Application of a Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide and Quaternary Ammonium Compound-Based Disinfectant





Microbial Decontamination of a 65-Room New Pharmaceutical Research Facility







Efficacy of chlorine dioxide on Escherichia coli inactivation during pilot-scale fresh-cut lettuce processing (5 ppm in water decreased E. Coli. by 99.999% in 60 seconds)



(5 ppm killed 99.999% E. coli in 15 minutes) Bactericidal effects of chlorine dioxide gas against

E. coli and S. Typhimurium in vitro




Systematic Evaluation of the Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide in Decontamination of Building Interior Surfaces Contaminated with Anthrax Spores





Disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide on air quality control in Armed Forces General Hospital of Taiwan f








Effect of extremely low-concentration gaseous chlorine dioxide against surface Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in wet conditions on glass dishes





Chlorine dioxide inactivation of bacterial threat agents








Inactivation of bacterial biothreat agents in water, a review




Reduction in the incidence of hospital-acquired MRSA following the introduction of a chlorine dioxide 275 ppm based disinfecting agent in a district general hospital






Efficiency of Chlorine Dioxide as Bactericide




Denaturation of protein by chlorine dioxide: oxidative modification of tryptophan and tyrosine residues

Norio Ogata. Biochemistry. 2007.







Inactivation of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Mycobacterium Bovis by 14 Hospital Disinfectants (Chlorine dioxide completely inactivated microbacterium tuberculosis)





Germicidal Activity of a Chlorous Acid-Chlorine Dioxide Teat Dip and a Sodium Chlorite Teat Dip During Experimental Challenge With Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Agalactiae


"The chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip reduced new intramammary infections (IMI) caused by Staph. aureus by 91.5% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 71.7%."


Full article:







Comparing the efficacy of hyper-pure chlorine-dioxide with other oral antiseptics on oral pathogen microorganisms and biofilm in vitro (2013)





Antibacterial effect of chlorine dioxide and hyaluronate on dental biofilm (2010) (may take a few moments to load) Ali/publication/235920262_Antibacterial_effect_of_chlorine_dioxide_and_hyaluronate_on_dent al_biofilm/links/5452f6fa0cf26d5090a380cf.pdf









An In Vitro Comparative Study Determining Bactericidal Activity of Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide and Other Oral Rinses








Title: Application of chlorine dioxide to lessen bacterial contamination during broiler defeathering


"Carcasses sprayed with chorine dioxide during de-feathering had significantly lower numbers of Campylobacter and E. coli than carcasses treated with water spray control de-feathering.

Chlorine dioxide de-feathering treatment also resulted in lower prevalence of Salmonella than control de-feathering."




Direct Human Studies:

Efficacy Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Containing Toothpaste (DioxiBrite™) on Plaque and Gingivitis Efficacy_Evaluation_of_a_Chlorine_Dioxide_Containing_Toothpaste_DioxiBrite_on_Plaque_a nd_Gingivitis.pdf





Biocompatible Antiseptic Wound Irrigant

Jonathan H Valente et al. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2014 Jan.







Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial. (2010)





Efficacy of a chlorine dioxide-containing mouthrinse in oral malodor







A Comparison of Wound Healing Rate Following Treatment with Aftamed and Chlorine Dioxide Gels in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats


Full article:





Effects of a mouthwash with chlorine dioxide on oral malodor and salivary bacteria: a randomized placebo-controlled 7-day trial






Activated Chlorine Dioxide Solution Can Be Used as a Biocompatible Antiseptic Wound Irrigant on_Can_Be_Used_as.6.aspx#




The authors report the use of a novel antimicrobial irrigation solution. Chlorine dioxide appears to be a safe biologically acceptable antiseptic wound irrigant that does not appear to interfere with cosmetic outcomes.


The objective of this study was to compare cosmesis at 3 to 4 months and infection in simple lacerations irrigated with normal saline versus activated chlorine dioxide





Odor reduction potential of a chlorine dioxide mouthrinse.

Frascella J, Gilbert R, Fernandez P. Odor reduction potential of a chlorine dioxide mouthrinse. J Clin Dent. 1998;9(2):39-42. PMID: 10518851.







Efficacy of a chlorine dioxide-containing mouthrinse in oral malodor. (2000)


J Frascella et al. Compend Contin Educ Dent. Mar;21(3):241-4, 246, 248 passim; quiz 256



Efficacy of chlorine di